Bulging Disc: A common condition related to the spine, usually the lumbar, which occurs when a disc distends
beyond its normal space. The annulus portion of the lumbar disc weakens causing the nucleus to press against
it resulting in the annulus pinching or pressing against a nerve resulting in pain.
Big Idea: Written by BJ Palmer; this is the concept behind the Chiropractic theory that the body can heal itself if
the nervous system is optimally functioning and any and all interference is removed.
Biomechanics: Biomechanics is the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the
human body and the effects produced by these forces.
Bone Spur: A bone spur, also known as an osteophyte, is a bony growth formed on normal bone. Most people
think of something sharp when they think of a "spur," but a bone spur is just extra bone. A bone spur forms as the
body tries to repair itself by building extra bone. It generally forms in response to pressure, rubbing, or stress that
continues over a long period of time.
Bilateral: Refers to both sides of the body or structure.
Blocks or Blocking: These blocks are wedge-shaped adjusting devices. They are used by chiropractors
performing the sacral occipital technique, also known as SOT. The practitioner uses them to raise one or both
sides of the pelvis into a healthier pattern for better support of the spine and head.
Brain Stem: The lower extension of the brain where it connects to the spinal cord. Neurological functions located
in the brainstem include those necessary for survival such as breathing, digestion, heart rate and blood pressure
as well as those for arousal such as being awake and alert. It consists of the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and
Bursitis: Bursitis is the term used to describe inflammation or irritation of a bursa. Bursitis can result from a
direct hit or from repetitive joint movements. A bursa is a customized fluid sac that provides cushioning for
movement and pressure. People can also get bursitis when the body has to change its balance or movement to
adapt to differences; for example, if a person has one leg that's longer than the other.
Back Extension: It is backward bending of the spine done for strengthening lower back muscles.
Back Flexion: Back flexion, alternately known as trunk or spinal flexion, is the act of curling the spine forward, as
one does during an abdominal crunch. This method has shown to be effective in relieving back pain by
strengthening the lower back muscles and ligaments of the back.
Bariatric Surgery: This is a serious weight loss surgical procedure that decreases the size of the stomach,
reduces food intake and can enable you to lose a significant amount of weight. It is a permanent procedure that
requires a lifetime commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE): Also known as the basal metabolic rate. This is the energy needed to carry out
fundamental metabolic functions, such as breathing, ion transport, normal turnover of enzymes and other body
components, etc. It is measured with the subject in the fasted state, lying quietly in a room of comfortable
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA): Body fat scales use the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
technique. This method measures body composition by sending a low, safe electrical current through the body.
The current passes freely through the fluids contained in muscle tissue, but encounters difficulty/resistance when
it passes through fat tissue. This resistance of the fat tissue to the current is termed 'bioelectrical impedance',
and is accurately measured by body fat scales. When set against a person's height, gender and weight, the
scales can then compute their body fat percentage
Body Composition Score (BCS): A measure that combines many variables such as body weight, percentage of
body fat, waist circumference and hip circumference into one health score. The BCS is a more accurate measure
of weight loss progress than simply measuring body weight.
Body Mass Index (BMI): BMI stands for Body Mass Index. It is a measure of body composition. BMI is calculated
by taking a person's weight and dividing that by their height squared. BMI can be used to determine if people are
at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese. The higher the figure the more overweight you are. Like any of these
types of measures it is only an indication and other issues such as body type and shape have a bearing as well.
Bodywork: Bodywork is a variety of hands on therapies which involve physical manipulation of the body or the
energy fields believed to be associated with the body.
Ball and Socket Joint: In this type of joint a spheroidal surface of one bone works within a cup of another bone;
this will allow motion of the spheroidal bone in any direction, its extent being dependent on the concavity of the
cup. In the case of the hip joint, the cup is deep and the extent of movement is sacrificed to obtain additional
strength. The shoulder, in contrast, allows a wide range of movement, since the cup is shallow.