Edema: A condition in which fluid fills a damaged joint area with excessive fluid causing swelling similar to the
swelling of a twisted ankle.
Efferent: Carrying away from a central organ; nerve impulses leaving the brain to peripheral tissues.
Electromyography (EMG): Procedure that tests the spinal cord, nerves and muscle nerve endings.
Electrical Nerve Stimulation: A type of physical therapy modality treatment that utilizes rotating frequencies and
waves of electrical current to elicit therapeutic effects on the nervous and musculoskeletal system.
Electro-Muscle Stimulation (EMS): A form of electrical stimulation designed to reduce swelling and
inflammation and provide palliative relief.
Endorphins: Endorphins are among the brain chemicals known as neurotransmitters, which function to transmit
electrical signals within the nervous system. Stress and pain are the two most common factors leading to the
release of endorphins. Endorphins interact with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce our perception of pain
and act similarly to drugs such as morphine and codeine. In addition to decreased feelings of pain, secretion of
endorphins leads to feelings of euphoria, modulation of appetite, release of sex hormones, and enhancement of
the immune response.
Energy Expenditure: The amount of energy, measured in calories that a person uses on a daily basis. Calories
are used to perform all activities of the body including breathing, blood circulation, food digestion and the ability to
be physically active.
Epidural Injection: An injection into the spinal column in an effort to block pain sensations. This procedure is
commonly performed on the pregnant mother during delivery.
Examination: An in depth process of inspecting and testing the body to determine the best course of action for
treatment. Usually involves history, neurological and orthopedic testing. This time is used to address the cause
of the patient's complaints, symptoms.
Exercise: Exercise is any planned or structured physical activity. It usually involves repetitive bodily movement
done to improve or maintain cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility and body composition.
Exercise Therapy: A form of treatment referred to as a physical therapy modality that is used to help manage
pain, rehabilitate and strengthen damaged soft tissues, such as muscles, ligament, and tendons, and restore
normal range of motion and function.
Extensor Muscles: The muscles that cause your joints to straighten, such as the back and gluteus muscles that
help keep your back straight. These muscles are used to move body parts away from each other.
Extension: Movement of a joint whereby one part of the body is moved away from another. This is the act of