Objective Findings: Observations made during chiropractic or medical evaluations that are not under the
patient's control, such as X-ray results, neurological deficits, and positive and negative orthopedic results.
Oblique: Oblique refers to an X-ray view. They show the object from the front with all depths at an angle of 45°.
Occiput: The occiput is the anatomical term for the posterior portion of the head.
Occipital: Of, relating to or located within or near the occiput.
Orthopedics: Orthopedics is the study of the musculoskeletal system.
Orthopedist: An orthopedist is an orthopedic doctor that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of problems
of the musculoskeletal system.
Osteopathy: In its purest form osteopathy is a form of drug-free non-invasive manual medicine that focuses on
total body health by treating and strengthening the musculoskeletal framework, which includes the joints,
muscles and spine. Its aim is to positively affect the body's nervous, circulatory and lymphatic systems. Many
osteopaths have abandoned the all natural aspect of osteopathy and prescribe medicines and perform surgery.
Out-Of-Network: An insurance term describing the provision for reimbursement of services by a provider who is
not a participating provider of the patient’s insurance plan. Out of network benefits are sometimes reduced as a
Obesity: Obesity is an excess proportion of total body fat. A person is considered obese when his or her weight
is 20% or more above normal weight.
Oleylethanolamine (OEA): A fatty acid found in some foods that sends a strong signal to the brain to stop eating.
OEA is a powerful satiety factor and appetite suppressant.
Opiate: An opiate is a drug derived from the opium plant. The main opiates are morphine, codeine, heroin,
thebaine, and papaverine.
Orthopedic Surgeon: A medical doctor that performs surgery on conditions involving the musculoskeletal
Osteoarthritis: The wearing away of cartilage that protects and cushions joints including those in the spine and
extremities. Stripped of their protective material, the joints begin rubbing against each other, causing pain and
Osteopathic Medicine: A medical discipline that emphasizes the interrelationship between structure and
function of the body and recognizes the body's ability to heal itself. Particular attention is paid to muscles, joints,
bones, and nerves through defined osteopathic manipulations.
Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is the most common type of bone disease. Osteoporosis is the thinning of bone
tissue and loss of bone density over time. Osteoporosis occurs when the body fails to form enough new bone,
when too much old bone is reabsorbed by the body, or both. This loss of bone density can result in bone
Osteophytes: An osteophyte, also known as a bone spur, is a bony growth formed on normal bone. Most people
think of something sharp when they think of a "spur," but a bone spur is just extra bone. An osteophyte forms as
the body tries to repair itself by building extra bone. It generally forms in response to pressure, rubbing, or stress
that continues over a long period of time.
Overload Principle: The concept of progressively increasing the load and its training effect is known as the
overload principle. It can be defined as the application of any demand or resistance that is greater than those
levels normally encountered in daily life. The degree of intensity with which the system is overloaded will affect the
rate at which physiological adaptations take place. The closer the overload is to maximum, the greater the
physiological improvement, provided that the overload is applied in gradual progressions and can be tolerated by
the body for it takes time for the human body to adapt to additional exercise without experiencing fatigue or
excessive muscle soreness.
Overuse Injuries: An overuse injury is an accumulation of many tiny injuries of muscle, bone or ligament tissue
which causes pain and loss of function. Overuse injuries are more common than acute injuries and yet are more
subtle and difficult to diagnose. They occur gradually over time and therefore usually do not begin to appear until
several weeks into a training program. Symptoms may include pain, muscle spasms, and stiffness.
Overweight: Overweight is generally defined as having more body fat than is optimally healthy. (See Obesity)